• The Château du Clos Lucé

    The Château du Clos Lucé is situated just 400m from the Château d’Amboise. It was built on Gallo-Roman remains in 1471 after the land was given as the Manoir du Cloux by King Louis XI to Etienne le Loup, a former kitchen boy who had become a favourite of the king.

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  • 31 July 1548 – Letter from Elizabeth to Catherine Parr

    On 31st July 1548, the fourteen year-old Elizabeth, future Elizabeth I, wrote to her stepmother Catherine Parr, the Dowager Queen. The letter was written just before the pregnant Catherine took to her chamber, and just weeks before Catherine died of puerperal (childbed) fever. Elizabeth wrote:

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  • 30 July 1540 – Executions of Reformers and Catholics

    Burnings of Robert Barnes William Jerome Thomas Garrard

    Burning of Robert Barnes, William Jerome and Thomas Garrard

    On this day in history, Catholics Thomas Abell, Edward Powell and Richard Fetherston were hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield for refusing to acknowledge the royal supremacy. Also, at Smithfield that day, religious reformers Robert Barnes, William Jerome and Thomas Garrard were burned at the stake for heresy. Reformers and Catholics being executed on the same day - I wonder what the common people made of that!

    Edward Hall gives an account of that day:

    "The thirtie daie of July, were drawen on herdelles out of the Tower to Smithfeld, Robert Barnes Doctor in Diuinitee, Thomas Garard, and Wyllyam Jerome Bachelers in Diuinitee, Powell, Fetherston and Abell. The firste three were drawen to the stake, there before set vp, and were burned: and the latter three drawen to the Galowes, likewise there set vp, and were hanged, hedded, and quartered. Here ye must note, that the first three, wer menne that professed the Gospell of Jesu Christ, and were Preachers thereof: But wherefore they were now thus cruelly executed, I knowe not, although I haue searched to knowe the truth. But this I finde in their attainder, for ye muste vnderstande, that after thei had Preached at sainct Mary Spittle, as before I haue declared, Barnes for learnyng his lesson no better was committed to the Skolehouse before prepared, whiche was the Tower, where he was kepte, and neuer called to examinacion, till his rod that he should bee beaten withall, was made, whiche was a sharp and greate Fire in Smithefelde: and for compaignie sake was sent to the Skolehouse with hym, the fornamed Garet, and Jerome, whiche dronke all of one cuppe. And as I saied before, thus muche I finde in their attaindor, that they were detestable and abhominable Heretickes, and that thei had taught many heresies, the nomber whereof was to greate in the atteindor to be recited, so that there is not one alleged, whiche I haue often wondered at, that their heresies wer so many, and not one there alleged, as special cause of their deathe. And in deede at their deathe, thei asked the Shirifes, wherfore thei were condempned, who answered, they could not tell: but if I maie saie the truthe, moste menne said it was for Preachyng, against the Doctryne of Stephen Gardiner Bishoppe of Wynchester, who chiefly procured this their death, God and he knoweth, but greate pitie it was, that suche learned menne should so bee cast awaie, without examinacion, neither knowyng what was laied to their charge, nor neuer called to answere.

    The last three whiche were Powell, Fetherston, and Abell, were put to death for Treason, and in their attainder, is speciall mencion made of their offences, whiche was for the deniyng of the kynges supremacie, and afBrmyng that his Mariage with the Lady Katheryne was good: These with other were the treasons, that thei wer attainted of, and suffered death for."

    John Foxe relates "The History of Robert Barnes, Thomas Garret, and William Jerome, Divines" in his Actes and Monuments which you can read at Google Books (p. 414 onwards) or at http://www.exclassics.com/foxe/foxe197.htm.

    Notes and Sources

    • Hall, Edward. Hall's Chronicle, p. 840.
  • 29 July 1588 – The Battle of Gravelines

    Defeat of the Spanish Armada at Gravelines, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger.

    Defeat of the Spanish Armada at Gravelines, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger.

    On 29th July 1588, the day after the English had wrecked the crescent formation of the Spanish Armada at Calais with five hell-burners (fire-ships)and caused havoc, they attacked the Spanish fleet. This battle is known as the Battle of Gravelines because it took place just off the port of Gravelines, a Spanish stronghold in Flanders, part of the Spanish Netherlands, but near the border with France. The Duke of Medina Sedonia had been unable to reform the Spanish fleet at Calais, due to a south-easterly wind, and was forced to regroup at Gravelines.

    The English had learned from previous encounters with the Spanish fleet and so used new and more successful tactics. They had learned from capturing the Rosario in the Channel that the Spaniards could not easily reload their guns, so with their smaller and lighter ships the English were able to provoke the Spaniards into firing, but keep out of range and then close in for the kill.

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  • This week in history 27 July – 2 August

    On this day in history events for 27 July – 2 August.

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  • The Paternity of Catherine and Henry Carey by Sarah Bryson

    In my last article, Unravelling Mary Boleyn, I wrote about Catherine and Henry Carey, the children of Mary Boleyn. There have always been questions surrounding the paternity of Mary Boleyn’s children as around the time that both children were conceived Mary Boleyn was not only a married woman but she was also the mistress of Henry VIII.

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  • Wars of the Roses Personalities Quiz

    Test your knowledge on the people and families of the Wars of the Roses in this fun quiz.

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  • The Wedding of Mary I and Philip of Spain – A Primary Source Account

    On 25th July 1554, the feast day of St James, Mary I married Philip of Spain, son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The wedding took place at Winchester Cathedral and the ceremony was performed by Stephen Gardener, Bishop of Winchester and Mary’s chancellor.

    In the appendix of The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, and especially of the Rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyatt, written by a Resident in the Tower of London, edited by John Gough Nichols, there is an official account of the preparations for the wedding and the wedding itself by the English Heralds:

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  • Outdoor Tudor Games and Pursuits

    In this week’s Claire Chats I talk about outdoor games and pursuits enjoyed by Tudor people, including stool ball, quoits and Last Couple in Hell.

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  • 24 July 1567 – The Abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots

    On 24th July 1567, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was imprisoned at Lochleven Castle and who had recently suffered a miscarriage, was forced to abdicate. The Scottish crown was passed on to her one year-old son, James, who became James VI of Scotland, with his uncle, Mary’s illegitimate half brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, acting as regent.

    Claude Nau de la Boisseliere, Mary’s private secretary, recorded this event in his memoirs, which were translated from French into English as The History of Mary Stewart: From the Murder of Riccio Until Her Flight Into England:

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